Publications by ECI Staff       
Projects   Background   Mission/Goals/Strategies

BOOKS
BOOK CHAPTERS
PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL ARTICLES (Selected)
PROCEEDINGS (Select) 


BOOKS

Fowler, M.E. and Mikota, S.K.(eds). 2006. Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of the Elephant. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA. 565p.

Mikota, S.K., Sargent, E.L., and Ranglack, G.S. 1994. Medical Management of the Elephant. Indira Publishing House, Bloomfield, Michigan. 298p.

BOOK CHAPTERS

Susan K. Mikota,1* Konstantin P. Lyashchenko,2, Linda Lowenstine,3 Dalen Agnew4 and Joel N. Maslow5 2015
Mycobacterial Infections in Elephants. In: Tuberculosis, leprosy and mycobacterial diseases of man and animals: the many hosts of mycobacteria. CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International), Oxfordshire, UK

Mikota. S.K., Kaufman, G.E., Subedi, N., and Dhakal, I.P. 2015 (In press). Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Elephants in Asia - Taking a One Health Approach. In: Case Studies in One Health: Addressing Complex Problems in a Changing World. 5m publishing Benchmark Holdings PLC of 8 Smithywood Drive, Sheffield, UK S35 1QN

Mikota, S.K., Lyashchenko, K.P., Lowenstine, L., Agnew, D., and Maslow, J.N. 2015 (in press). Mycobacterial Infections in Elephants. In: Mukundan, H., Chambers, M.A., Waters, W.R., and Larsen, M.H. eds. Many Hosts of Mycobacteria.  Tuberculosis, Leprosy, and other Mycobacterial Diseases of Man and Animals. CABI Publishing House.

Mikota, S.K. 2009. Stress, Disease, and Tuberculosis in Elephants. In: Forthman, D.L., Kane, L.F., and Waldau, P.F. eds. The Elephant in the Room: Science and Well-being of Elephants in Captivity. North Grafton, MA. Center for Elephants and Public Policy, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine Tufts University. Pp. 74-84. 

Mikota, S.K., Hammatt,H, and Fahrimal, Y. 2008. Sumatran Elephants in Crisis. In: Wemmer, C. and Christen, C. Elephants and Ethics. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Pp. 361-380.

Mikota, S.K. 2008. Tuberculosis in Elephants. In: Fowler, M.E. and Miller, R.E. Eds. 2008. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Current Therapy, 6th Ed. St. Louis, Saunders/Elsevier. Pp. 355-364.

Mikota, S.K. 2006. Therapeutics. In: Fowler, M.E. and Mikota, S.K.(eds). Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of the Elephant. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA. Pp. 211-231.

Mikota, S.K. 2006. Preventive Health Care and Physical Examination. In: Fowler, M.E. and Mikota, S.K.(eds). Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of the Elephant. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA. Pp. 67-73.

Mikota, S.K. 2006. Hemolymphatic System. In: Fowler, M.E. and Mikota, S.K.(eds). Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of the Elephant. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA. Pp. 325-345.

Mikota, S.K. 2006. Integument System. In: Fowler, M.E. and Mikota, S.K.(eds). Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of the Elephant. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA. Pp. 253-261.

Mikota, S.K. 2006. Antemortem Diagnostics: General techniques. In: Fowler, M.E. and Mikota, S.K.(eds). Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of the Elephant. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA. Pp. 183-192.

Mikota, S.K. and Kahn, M.J. 2000. Hematology of the Elephant. In: Feldman, B. (ed.). Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology, Fifth Edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. 1191-1195.

 PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL ARTICLES (Selected)

 Mikota, S.K., Gairhe, K., Giri, K., Hamilton, Millerm M., Paudel, S., Lyashchenko, K., Larse, R.S., Payeur, J., Waters, W.R., Greenwald, R., Dumonceaux, G., Vincnet, B., and Kaufman, G.E. 2015. Tuberculosis Surveillance of Elephants (Elephas maximus) in Nepal at the Captive-Wild Interface. European Journal of Wildlife Research 61(2): 221-229

Maslow, J.N. and Mikota, S.K. Tuberculosis in elephants – a re-emergent disease: Diagnostic dilemmas, the natural history of infection, and new immunological tools. 2015. Veterinary Pathology. Published online 29 January 2015. Doi:10.1177/0300985814568357.

Lassausaie,J., Bret,A., Bouapao, X., Chanthavong, V., Castonguay-Vanier, J., Quet, F., Mikota, S.K., Theoret, C., Buisson, Y., and Bouchard, B., 2014. Tuberculosis in Laos, who is at risk: the mahouts or their elephants? Epidemiol Infect. doi:10.1017/S0950268814002180. Published on line 28 August 2014.

Paudel, S., Mikota, S.K., Nakajima, C., Gairhe, K., Bhagwan, M., Thapa, J., Poudel, A., Shimozuru, Suzuki, Y., Tsubota, T., 2014. Molecular characrterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from elephants of Nepal. Tuberculosis 94: 287-292.

Lyashchenko, K. P., Greenwald, R., Esfandiari, J., Mikota, S., Miller, M., Moller, T., Volgelnest, L., Gairhe, K., Robbe-Austerman, S., Gai, J., and Waters, W. R. 2012. Field application of serodiagnostics toidentify elephants with tuberculosis prior to case confirmation by culture. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 19: 1269-1275.

Mikota. S.K. and Maslow, J.N. 2011. Tuberculosis at the human-animal interface: An emerging disease for elephants.Tuberculosis 91:208-211.

Landolfi, J.A., Mikota, S.K., Chosy,J., Lyashchenko, K.P., Giri, K., Gairhe, K., and Terio, K.A. 2010. Comparison of systemic cytokine levels in Mycobacterium spp. Seropositive and seronegative Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 41(3): 445–455.

Landolfi, J,A., Schultz,S.A., Mikota, S.K, and Terio, K.A. 2009. Development and validation of cytokine quantitative, real time RT-PCR assays for characterization of Asian elephant immune responses. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 131:73–78.

Miller, M., Chen, T.C., Holick, M.F., Mikota, S.K. and  Dierenfeld, E. 2009. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). J. Zoo. Wildl. Med. 40:302-305.

Greenwald, R., Lyashchenko, O., Esfandiari, J., Miller, M., Mikota, S., Olsen, J., Ball, R., Dumonceaux, D., Schmitt, D., Mollerm T., and Lyashchenko, K. 2009. Highly accurate antibody assays for early and rapid detection of tuberculosis in African and Asian elephants. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 16(5):605-612.

Mikota, S.K. 2008. Review of tuberculosis in captive elephants and implications for wild populations. Gajah 28:8-18.

Peloquin, C.A., Maslow, J.N., Mikota, S. K., Forrest, A., Dunker, F., Isaza, R., Peddie, L., Peddie, J. and Zhu, M. 2006.  Dose selection and pharmacokinetics of rifampin in elephants for the treatment of tuberculosis. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 29: 581-535.

Lyashchenko,K.P., R.Greenwald, J.Esfandiari, J.H.Olsen, R.Ball, G.Dumonceaux, F.Dunker, C.Buckley, M.Richard, S.Murray, J.B.Payeur, P.Andersen, J.M.Pollock, S.Mikota, M.Miller, D.Sofranko and W.R.Waters. 2006. Tuberculosis in elephants: antibody responses to defined antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, potential for early diagnosis, and monitoring of treatment. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13:722-732.

Zhu, M., Maslow, J.N., Mikota, S.K. Isaza, R., Dunker, F.,Riddle, H., and Peloquin, C.A. 2005. Population pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide in elephants. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28:403-409.

Maslow, J.N., Mikota, S.K., Zhu,M., Riddle, H.,and Peloquin, C.A. 2005. Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol in elephants. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(3):321-323.

Maslow, J.N., Mikota, S.K., Zhu, M., Isaza, R., Peddie, L., Dunker, F., Peddie, J., Riddle, H. and Peloquin, C.A. 2005. Population Pharmacokinetics of Isoniazid in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Asian and African Elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana). J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 28:21-27.

Auclair, B., Mikota, S.K., Peloquin, C.A., Aguilar, R., Maslow, J.N. 2002.  Population pharmacokinetics of antituberculous drugs and treatment of Mycobacterium bovis infection in bongo antelope (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci). J Zoo Wildl Med. 33:193-203.

Mikota, S.K., Peddie, L., Peddie, J., Isaza, R., Dunker, F., West, G., Lindsay, W., Larsen, R.S., Salman, M.D., Chatterjee, D., Payeur, J., Whipple, D., Thoen, C., Davis, S., Sedgwick, C., Montali, R.J., Ziccardi, M., and Maslow, J. 2001.  Epidemiology and diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 32:1-16.

Montali, R.J., Mikota, S.K., and Cheng, L.I. 2001.  Mycobacterium tuberculosis in zoo and wildlife species. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties 20(1):291-303.

Larsen R.S., Salman, M.D., Mikota, S.K., Isaza, R., Montali, R.J. and Triantis, J. 2000.  Evaluation of a multiple-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in captive elephants. J Zoo Wildl Med 31:291-302.

Mikota, S.K., Larsen, R.S., and Montali, R.J. 2000. Tuberculosis in elephants in North American.  Zoo Biology 19:393-403.

Mikota, S.K., and Aguilar, R.F. 1996. Management protocols for species survival plan animals and animals in captive propagation programs intended for ultimate release into the wild. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties 15:191-208.

Stetter, M.D., Mikota, S.K., Gutter, A.F., Monterroso, E.R., Dalovisio, J.R., Degraw, C., and Farley, T. 1995. Epizootic of Mycobacterium bovis in a zoological park. J. Am.Vet. Med. Assoc. 207:1618-1621.

Dalovisio, J.R., Stetter, M., and Mikota-Wells, S.K. 1992. Rhinoceros rhinorrhea: cause of an outbreak of infection due to airborne Mycobacterium bovis in zookeepers. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:598-600. 

PROCEEDINGS (Select) 

Mikota, S.K., Subedi, S., Gairhe, K., Paudel, S., Thapa, J., Vincent, B., Subedi, N., and Kaufman, G. 2013.  Nepal elephant (Elephas maximus) healthcare and tuberculosis surveillance program update.  Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Pp. 8-9.

Mikota, S.K., Kaufman, G., Dhakal, I.P., Pandey, B.D. 2009. Tuberculosis in Nepal: Elephants, Humans, Livestock, and Wildlife. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Pp. 3-4.

Mikota, S.K., Miller, M., Dumonceaux, G., Giri, K., Gairhe, K., Hamiltion, K., Paudel, S., Lyashchenko, K., Larsen, Payeur, J., Waters, R., Salman,M.D., and Kaufman, G. 2007. Comparison of four serologic assays and culture to determine tuberculosis infection in captive elephants in Nepal.Proceedings AAZV, AAWV, AZA/NAG Joint Conference. Pp. 71-72.

Mikota, S.K., Miller, M., Dumonceaux, G., Giri, K., Gairhe, K., Hamilton, K., Paudel, S., and Vincent, B. 2006. Elephant tuberculosis diagnosis: implications for elephant management in Asian range countries. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Pp. 142-143

Mikota, S.K., Dumonceaux, G., Miller, M., Gairhe, K., Giri, K., Cheeran, J.V., Abraham, D., Lyashchenko, K., Larsen, R.S., Payeur, J., Waters, W.R., and Kaufman, G. 2006. Tuberculosis in Elephants: An Update on Diagnosis and Treatment; Implications for Control in Range Countries.  Proceedings of the International Elephant Conservation and Research Symposium, Copenhangen Denmark. Pp. 110-118.

Dumonxeaux, G.A. and Mikota,S. Tuberculosis treatment protocols and complications for elephants. 2006. Proceedings of the International Elephant Conservation and Research Symposium, Copenhangen Denmark. Pp. 84-85.

Hammatt, H., Fahrimal,Y., and Mikota, S. 2005. Implications of new data for Sumatran elephants in captivity.  Proceedings of the Symposium on Human-Elephant Relationships and Conflict, Sri Lanka.

Mikota, S.K., Hammatt, H., and Finnegan, M. 2003. Occurrence and prevention of capture wounds in Sumatran elephants. Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. Pp. 291-293.

Mikota, S.K. and Hammatt, H. 2001. Elephant Care International: an independent program devoted to elephant healthcare and conservation. Recent Research on Elephants & Rhinos, Abstracts of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna. June 7-11, 2001. Pp. 60.

Montali, RJ, Richman, L.K., Mikota, S.K., Schmitt, D.L., Larsen, R.S., Hildebrandt, T.B., Isaza, R., and Lindsay, W.A. 2001. Management aspects of herpesvirus infections and tuberculosis in elephants. Recent Research on Elephants & Rhinos, Abstracts of the International Elephant and Rhino Research Symposium, Vienna. June 7-11, 2001. P. 25.

Mikota, S.K. 2000.  Sumatra’s elephant training centers: a call for assistance.  Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. and the Intl. Assoc. of Aquatic Anim. Med. 2000. Pp. 127-129.

Larson, R.S., Salman, M.D., Mikota, S.K., Isaza, R., Triantis, J. 2000.  Validation and use of a multiple antigen Elisa for detection of tuberculosis infection in elephants.  Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. and the Intl. Assoc. of Aquatic Anim. Med: 2000: Pp. 231-233.

Ziccardi, M., Mikota, S.K., Barbiers, R.B., Norton, T.M., Robbins, P.K., and the National Tuberculosis Working Group for Zoo and Wildlife Species. 2000.  Tuberculosis in zoo ungulates: survey results and surveillance plan.  Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. and the Intl. Assoc. of Aquatic Anim. Med: 2000. Pp. 438-441.

Mikota, S.K. 1999.  A review of diseases of the elephant.  Verhber Zootiere (1999) 39.  Pp. 1-15.

Mikota, S.K., Lindsay, W., Isaza, R., West, G., Peddie, J., Peddie, L., Dunker, F., and Maslow, J. 1999.  Tuberculosis in elephants in North America: an update.  Fourth International Elephant Research Symposium, Atlanta, GA. June, 1999.

Mikota, S.K. 1998.  Status of tuberculosis and tuberculosis testing in captive elephants in North America.  Third International Elephant Research Symposium, 1998. P.4.

Montali, R., Spelman, L., Cambre, R., Chatterjee, D., and Mikota, S. 1998.  Factors influencing interpretation of indirect testing methods for tuberculosis in elephants.  Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. and the Am. Assoc. Wildl. Vet.1998. Pp. 109-112.

Mikota, S.K., Aguilar, R., Maslow, J., and Peloquin, C. 1998. Investigation of diagnostic parameters and treatment regimens in bongo antelope (Tragelaphus eurycerus) exposed to Mycobacterium bovis.  Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. and the Am. Assoc. Wildl. Vet. 1998. Pp. 116-118.

Mikota, S.K., Pope, C.E., Dresser, B., Aguilar, R., and Maslow, J. 1998.  Tuberculosis infection in bongo antelope: 1) Investigation of diagnostic and treatment regimens 2) Determination of transmission to the bongo embryo.  Proc. Am. Zoo and Aquar. Assoc. 1998. P. 349.

Mikota, S.K., Dunker, F., Ramiro, I., Peddie, J., Peddie, L., Maslow, J., Members of the Elephant Tuberculosis Advisory Committee, and Members of the National Tuberculosis Working Group for Zoo and Wildlife Species. 1998.  Tuberculosis: 1) Status of tuberculosis in captive elephants in North America 2) Development of TB testing guidelines for elephants 3) The National Tuberculosis Working Group for Zoo and Wildlife Species.  Proc. Am. Zoo and Aquar. Assoc. 1998.Pp. 352-354.

Mikota, S.K., and Maslow, J. 1997.  Theoretical and technical aspects of diagnostic techniques for mammalian tuberculosis.  Proc. Am.Assoc. Zoo Vet. 1997. Pp. 162-165.

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