Professional Content       

Disease Topics
Health Protocols
Management Protocols
Management Topics
Other Documents

Copyright 2006 Nilanjan Das


Caution:  Large files - may take several minutes to open or download, especially on slower connections.
Disease Topics: 

Encephalomyocarditis (EMC, EMCV) Elephant Care International Fact Sheet
Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV)
    Minimum Standards of Care for Elephant Calves EEHV  EEHV Advisory Group Meeting 8.20.14
Rabies - Elephant Care International Fact Sheet
SalmonellosisElephant Care International Fact Sheet

USDA/APHIS Establishes Voluntary TB Guidelines -  Guidelines for the Control of TB in Elephants 2010 
    Guidelines for the Control of TB in
Elephants 2010  United States Animal Health Association (USAHA) Oct. 29, 2008
    Summary - Elephant Tuberculosis Research Workshop May 2005
    Tuberculosis -
Elephant Care International Fact Sheet
Frequently Asked Questions
    Comprehensive reference list on TB in elephants
    TB and Implications for Elephant Management in Asia
West Nile Virus Update in Elephants
Signs of Health and Disease
Comprehensive: Elephant: Diseases and Treatment - Wildlife Information Network (external link)

Health Protocols:

Elephas Maximus - Asiatic Elephant - Weights & Physiological Reference Ranges (International Species Information System - ISIS)
Loxodonta africana - African Elephant - 
Weights & Physiological Reference Ranges  
(International Species Information System - ISIS)
EEHV research tissue protocol revised June 2015 EEHV Advisory Group
Asian Elephant EEHV Protocol April 2015 (Houston Zoo)
Request Form for EEHV Testing 2016 - (NEHL)
Elephant Endotheliotrophic Herpes Virus (EEHV) Protocol Version 1.3 UK
Elephant Serum Bank Submission Form 2010 (AZA - U.S.)
Elephant SSP Routine Health Protocol 2012  (AZA - Elephant SSP 2012)
Elephant Vital Signs and Physiological Parameters (compiled by Susan Mikota DVM 2006)
Guidelines For Comprehensive Elephant Health Monitoring Program (SSP - AZA - USA) May 2005
Elephant SSP Transport guidelines for elephants 2012  (AZA - U.S.)
Quarantine Guidelines For Elephants 2010 (AZA - U.S.)
Elephant Tag/SSP Research and Necropsy Protocol 2016  (AZA - U.S.)
Post-mortem Procedures for Wildlife Veterinarians and Field Biologists  (African Elephants)
 (Published jointly by the Office International des Epizooties, Care for the Wild and the Veterinary Specialist Group/Species Survival Commission

Management Protocols:

Standard Guidelines for Elephant Management 2005 (EMA- U.S.)
AZA Standards for Elephant Management and Care (AZA 2012)
BIAZA Managment Guidelines for the Welfare of Zoo Animals 3rd Edition,
           (2010 BIAZA - British & Irish Association of Zoos & Aquariums)
Optimal Conditions for Captive Elephants 2005 with 2007 updates (Coalition for Captive Elephant Well-Being)
Best Practices 2005 (Coalition for Captive Elephant Well-Being)

   Potential Treatments for Reproductive Problems in Elephants (Janine Brown - National Zoo - US)
   Veterinary Guidelines for Reproduction-Related Management in Captive Female Elephants (EAZA TAG - Europe)
         Special Note:
The above birth protocol is a work-in-progress.  There is much to be learned and the authors request that readers give feedback
         to the authors as to their experiences so that improvements in the protocol can be made.  Please send comments or questions to Willem
         Schaftenaar <>"


Management Topics (some overlap between categories - check Scientific Topics also)
Please note our Position Statement.  We welcome materials from diverse viewpoints.
Let Them Be Elephants
(PDF of a PowerPoint Presentation) by Hilda Tresz and Heather Wright
      (Details new husbandry and training methods for “problem” elephants at Phoenix Zoo

Review of Options for Managing the Impacts of Locally Overabundant African Elephants
External link:From the African
     Elephant Specialist Group - 2007 task force output, available at their site as a PDF

Elephant care manual for mahouts and camp managers  External link: Available as a PDF in English and Thai
:  This is an FAO, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific; Forest Industry
      Organization, Bangkok (Thailand) Publication by Preecha Phuangkum; Lair, R.C. (ed.); Taweepoke Angkawanith.  Funding was provided by IFAW
      (International Fund for Animal Welfare).

Captive Elephant Management Rules (DRAFT) (Kerala, India) 
Handbook Elephants: Nutrition and Dietary Husbandry Nutrition Advisory Group of the  AZA
Practical Elephant Management - A Handbook for Mahouts  (India)
Draft Statement of Principles Elephant Acquisition and Management (Australian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA)

Other Documents:
Not in alphabetical order

Caution:  Large files - may take several minutes to open or download, especially on slower connections.

Healthcare Management of Captive Asian Elephants by Dr. G. Ajitkumar et al available free at thyis link
Free Conservation Biology textbook available, courtesy of Oxford University Press- Oxford University Press has made a Conservation
   Biology textbook freely available: Sodhi, N. S. and P. R. Ehrlich (Eds.) Conservation Biology for All. Oxford University Press (2010). Download
    the 350 pp book (6.4 MB) for free at: .

Buddhism and Deep Ecology for Protection of Wild Asian Elephants in Myanmar: A resource Guide, Daniel H. Henning, PhD
The elephant’s hoof: Macroscopic and microscopic morphology of defined locations under consideration of pathological changes
IUCN/SSC African Elephant Specialist Group: Statement on the Taxonomy of extant Loxodonta, Feb. 2002
For the Love of Elephants: Mahoutship and Elephant Conservation in Thailand Thesis by Jean VortKamp
Giants on our hands. Proceedings of the international workshop on the domesticated Asian elephant Bangkok, Thailand 2001
External link: FAO - PDF version available at this link - link opens in smaller document for faster loading


Let Them Be Elephants: Hilda Tresz and Heather Wright, Phoenix Zoo
Signs of Health and Illness A brief presentation by Dr. Susan Mikota
Risk Assessment and Ethics in International Conservation Projects A presentation by Hank Hammatt delivered at the Zoos & Aquariums: Committing to Conservation Conference January 26th-30th, 2005
What can you do to help save elephants? A lifestyle presentation

The above documents are published here with the generous permission of the respective associations.  If you or your organization have a protocol, manual, or proceedings, we encourage you to share your knowledge and experience.  Please contact us for details.  See our Bulletin Board for other posting possibilities.  

Website creation, design, and copyright  © 2002-2015 by Hank Hammatt.   Images copyright © 2002-2015 by Hank Hammatt  (except as noted)
here to get information on image use.  All other rights reserved.