Elephant Formulary

© 2003-17 Susan K. Mikota DVM and Donald C. Plumb, Pharm.D. Published by
Elephant Care International

Disclaimer: the information on this page is used entirely at the reader's discretion, and is made available on the express condition that no liability, expressed or implied, is accepted by the authors or publisher for the accuracy, content, or use thereof.


Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.




Note: Detailed guidelines for the treatment of tuberculosis in elephants have been developed in the U.S.A. by the National Tuberculosis Working Group for Zoo and Wildlife Species. The drugs and dosages recommended are based on human treatment protocols and information obtained from pharmacokinetic studies in elephants (unpublished data). The reader is advised to consult the current Guidelines available at the following websites:


http://www.elephantcare.org\protodoc_files\new03\Guidelines For The Control Of Tuberculosis In Elephants 2003.pdf 




a) Ethambutol 30 mg/kg administered orally only. In limited studies, pure drug has been found to be irritating to the rectum and is rapidly expelled (Natl. TB Working Group).


b) 30 mg/kg PO as a starting dose; monitor serum drug levels and adjust dose as needed. Bulk formulation is not tolerated rectally (Maslow 2005).


Elephant References:

a) The National Tuberculosis Working Group for Zoo and Wildlife Species. 2003. Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in ElephantsInternet links above.


b) Maslow, J.N., Mikota, S.K., Zhu, M., Riddle, H., and Peloquin, C.A. 2005. Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol (EMB) in elephants. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 28(3):321-3.