Elephant Formulary

© 2003-17 Susan K. Mikota DVM and Donald C. Plumb, Pharm.D. Published by
Elephant Care International

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Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.


a) 7.5 mg/kg (not exceeding 6.8 g/animal) for fascioliasis (Islam, 1997)


b) 5.0 – 7.5 mg/kg orally for amphistomiasis (Chandrsekharan, 2002), (Chandrsekharan et.al.,1995)


c) 3.4 mg/kg orally for cestodiasis (Chandrsekharan, 2002), (Chandrsekharan et.al.,1995)


Elephant References:

a) Islam,S. 1997. Studies on some aspects of fascioliasis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 11:(1):109  Summary of abstract: The epidemiology of Fasciola jacksoni in wild and captive elephants (Elephas maximus) was studied in Assam, India. Wild elephants had an overall prevalence rate of 33.78%. Captive elephants showed prevalence rates of 42.50, 62.28 and 18.18% according to locality. The egg, miracidium and adult stages of F. jacksoni were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy, and their morphology is described. A diurnal fluctuation in faecal egg count was recorded, with average counts of 4.89, 2.47 and 2.76 during the morning, noon and evening, respectively. Young animals were most affected by the parasite and showed anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, anaemia and icterus, with death occurring in severe cases. Some old adults survived the disease with no apparent clinical manifestations. The adult parasites caused massive liver damage. Treatment with triclabendazole (9 mg/kg, not exceeding 7200 mg/animal) and oxyclozanide (7.5 mg/kg, not exceeding 6.8 g/animal) were 100 and 72.16% effective, respectively.

b,c,) Chandrasekharan,K. 2002. Specific diseases of Asian elephants. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7:(3):31-34 

b,c) Chandrasekharan,K., Radhakrishnan,K., Cheeran,J.V., Nair,K.N.M., and Prabhakaran,T., 1995. Review of the Incidence, Etiology and Control of Common Diseases of Asian Elephants with Special Reference to Kerala. In: Daniel,J.C. (Editor), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India pp. 439-449