© 2003-17 Susan K. Mikota DVM and Donald C. Plumb, Pharm.D. Published by
Elephant Care International
Disclaimer: the information on this page is used entirely at the reader's discretion, and is made available on the express condition that no liability, expressed or implied, is accepted by the authors or publisher for the accuracy, content, or use thereof.
Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.
CAUTION! Sedative and anesthetic drug dosages for African elephants often vary from those for Asian elephants. Do not assume that the recommendations for one species can be applied to the other. Significant variation may also occur between individual elephants. Higher doses may be needed in wild or excited animals. Unless otherwise specified, doses refer to captive elephants. The information provided here should be used as a guideline only. Consultation with experienced colleagues is advised.
a) For transport of wild African elephants according to shoulder height: 1.0-1.49 m shoulder height (100-150 mg perphenazine); 1.5-1.99 m (150-200 mg); 2.0-2.49m (200-250 mg); 2.5-2.99 m (150-300mg) (du Toit, 2001).
b) During a translocation of 670 African elephants, 100-300 mg perphenazine was administered to keep the elephants calm after their release into bomas (Coatsee, 1996).
c) Following transport of wild African elephants where confinement is to be continued at the destination: 100 mg IM for small calves < 1.6 m shoulder height and 200 mg IM for larger calves. Perphenazine has only been used on a small number of elephants but a positive effect has been noted. The optimal dose rate has not yet been established (Raath, 1993).
d) Doses of 200-250 mg perphenazine were used to load semi-tame 13-15 year old African elephants; two aggressive young bulls (12-14 years) were calmed by the administration of 200 mg with a duration of effect of two weeks; an aggressive, adult bull in musth was calmed within a few hours by 300 mg of perphenazine ( Ebedes, 1993).
e Perphenazine has been given to a limited number of newly captured wild Asian elephants(n=4) weighing 1800-3800 kg at doses of 200-250 mg IM. All elephants exhibited a calming effect lasting about 2 weeks. (Mikota, 2003).
a) du Toit,J.G., 2001. Veterinary Care of African Elephants. Novartis, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, 1-59 pp
b) Coatsee, C. 1996. Elephant Translocations. Pachyderm 22: p.81.
c) Raath,J.P. 1993. Chemical capture of the African elephant. In: The Capture and care manual : capture, care, accommodation and transportation of wild African animals. Pretoria : Wildlife Decision Support Services : South African Veterinary Foundation, Pretoria pp. 484-511
d) Ebedes,H. 1993. The use of long-acting tranquilizers in captive wild animals. In: The Capture and care manual : capture, care, accommodation and transportation of wild African animals. Pretoria : Wildlife Decision Support Services : South African Veterinary Foundation, Pretoria
e) Author’s (Mikota) experience
Lance,W.R. 1991. New pharmaceutical tools for the 1990’s. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 354-359
Blumer,E.S. 1991. A review of the use of selected neuroleptic drugs in the management of nondomestic hoofstock. Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet. Pages: 333-339