Elephant Formulary

© 2003-17 Susan K. Mikota DVM and Donald C. Plumb, Pharm.D. Published by
Elephant Care International

Disclaimer: the information on this page is used entirely at the reader's discretion, and is made available on the express condition that no liability, expressed or implied, is accepted by the authors or publisher for the accuracy, content, or use thereof.

Drugs Sorted by Therapeutic Class/Indication

Note these abbreviations used in parentheses after the drug name: 

“H” after the drug name indicates that the horse dose is listed for this drug. 

”O” indicates that doses for other species are listed (horse dose unavailable but drug potentially useful for elephants) 

“E” indicates that information specific to elephants is listed.

Central Nervous System Drugs

(including anti-inflammatories, analgesics, muscle relaxants)


            CNS/Respiratory Stimulants

                        Doxapram  (H) (E)



                        Narcotic Agonists

                                    Meperidine (H) (E)

                                    Morphine  (H) (E)

                                    Oxymorphone (H)

                        Narcotic agonist/antagonists

                                    Buprenorphine  (H)

                                    Butorphanol  (H) (E)

                                    Pentazocine (H)


                      Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory/

                           Analgesic Agents

                                    Aspirin (H) 

                                    Carprofen (O)

                                    DMSO (H)

                                    Flunixin  (H) (E)

                                    Ibuprofen (E)

                                    Ketoprofen  (H) (E)

                                    Meclofenamic Acid (H)

                                    Naproxen (H)                          

Phenylbutazone (H) (E)

                            Gold Compounds

                                    Aurothioglucose (H)

        Behavior-Modifying Agents Used for

                                    Acepromazine (H) (E)

                                    Diazepem (H) (E)

Haloperidol  (E)

                                    Perphenazine  (E)

                                    Xylazine  (H) (E)

                                   Zuclopenthixol (E)                              


                                    Acepromazine (H) (E)

                                    Azaperone (O) (E)

                                    Detomidine (H)

                                    Diazepam (H) (E)

                                    Haloperidol (E)

                                    Medetomidine (O) (E)

                                    Midazolam  (H)

                                    Perphenazine (E) 

                                    Promazine (H) (E)

                                    Tiletamine/Zolazepam  (H) (E)

                                    Xylazine (H) (E)


           Anesthetic Agents


                                    Pentobarbital (H)

                                    Thiamylal (H)

                                    Thiopental (H) (E)


                                    Isoflurane (O) (E)

                                    Halothane (H) (E)


                                    Ketamine (H) (E)

                                    Propofol  (O)

                                    Xylazine  (H) (E)

                                    Tiletamine/Zolazepam (H) (E)


                                    Carfentanil (E)

                                    Etorphine (E)

                      Reversal Agents

                                    Atipamezole (O) (E)

                                    Diprenorphine (E)

                                    Nalmefene (E)

Naloxone  (H) (E)

                                    Naltrexone (O) (E)

                                    Neostigmine (H)

                                    Tolazoline (H) (E)

                                    Yohimbine (H) (E)



                                    Diazepam (H) (E)

                                    Phenobarbital (H) (E)

                                    Phenytoin (H)

          Muscle Relaxants, Skeletal

                                    Atracurium (H)

                                    Dantrolene  (H)

                                    Guaifenesin/GG (H)

                                    Methocarbamol (H)

                                    Succinylcholine (H) (E)


            Muscle Relaxants, Smooth

                                    Aminopropazine (H)


            Euthanasia Agent

                                    Pentobarbital/Phenytoin (H)

 Cardiovascular Agents

           Inotropic Agents

                                    Digoxin (H)

                                    Digitoxin (H)

                                    Dobutamine (H) (E)


            Antiarrhythmic Drugs

                                    Lidocaine (H) (E)

                                    Procainamide (H)

                                    Quinidine (H)



                                    Atropine (H( (E)

                                    Glycopyrrolate (H)


            Vasodilating Agents

                                    Isoxsuprine (H)

            Agents Used in Treatment of  Shock

                                    Dobutamine (H) (E)

                                    Epinephrine (H) (E)

                                    Isoproterenol (H)

                                    Phenylephrine (H)


            Alpha-Adrenergic Blocking Agents

                                    Phenoxybenzamine (H)


            Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents

                                    Propranolol (H)

Respiratory Drugs



                                    Albuterol (H)

                                    Clenbuterol (H)

                                    Epinephrine (H)

                                    Isoproterenol (H)

                                    Terbutaline (H)



                                    Aminophylline/Theophyll. (H)



                                    Chlorpheniramine (O) (E)

                                    Diphenhydramine (H)

                                    Doxylamine (H)

                                    Hydroxyzine (H)

                                    Pyrilamine (H)

                                    Tripelennamine (H)



                                    Butorphanol (H) (E)

Renal and Urinary Tract


                        Loop Diuretics

                                    Furosemide (H) (E)

                        Osmotic Diuretics

                                    Mannitol (H)


            Agents for Urinary Incontinence/Retention

                Phenoxybenzamine (H)                                 

            Urinary Alkalinizers

                                    Sodium Bicarbonate (H)


            Urinary Acidifiers

                                    Methionine (H)

                                    Ammonium Chloride (H)


            Cholinergic Stimulants

                                    Bethanechol (H)


            Agents for Urolithiasis

                                    Ammonium Chloride (H)

                                    Methionine (H)

 Gastrointestinal Agents

            Antiemetic Agents

                                    Chlorpromazine (H) (E)

                                    Diphenhydramine (H)

                                    Metoclopramide (H) (E)


                                    Calcium Salts, Oral (H) (E)

                                    Na Bicarbonate (H)

                        H2 Antagonists

                                    Cimetidine (H)

                                    Famotidine (D)

                                    Ranitidine (H)

                        Gastromucosal Protectants

                                    Sucralfate (H)

                        Proton Pump Inhibitors

                                    Omeprazole (H)


            Appetite Stimulants

                                    Diazepam (H)

                                    Oxazepam (H)


            GI Antispasmodics-Anticholinergics

                                    Propantheline (H)


            GI Stimulants

                                    Cisapride (H)

                                    Dexpanthenol (H)

                                    Metoclopramide (H) (E)

                                    Neostigmine (H) (E)



                         Saline Hyperosmotics: Magnesium
                         Salts / Sodium Salts (H)

                        Bulk producing

                                    Psyllium (H)


                                    Mineral Oil (H)


                                    Docusate (H)



                                    Kaolin/Pectin (H)

                                    Bismuth Subsalicylate (H

                                    Clioquinol (H)


            Misc. GI Drugs

                                    Bismuth Subsalicylate  (H)

Hormones/Endocrine/Reproductive Agents

            Sex Hormones


                                    Estradiol (H) (E)


                                    Altrenogest (H)

                       Anabolic steroids

                                    Boldenone (H)

                                    Stanozolol (H)


            Posterior Pituitary Hormones


                                    Oxytocin (H) (E)


            Adrenal Cortical Steroids

                                    Corticotropin-ACTH (H)


                                    Dexamethasone (H) (E)

                                    Flumethasone (H)

                                    Hydrocortisone  (H)

                                    Methylprednisolone (H)

                                    Prednisolone (H)

                                    Prednisone (H) (E)

                                    Triamcinolone (H)


            Antidiabetic Agents

                                    Insulin (H)


            Thyroid Drugs

                        Thyroid Hormones

                                    Levothyroxine (H)

                                    Thyrotropin (TSH) (H)

            Misc. Endocrine/Reproductive Drugs

                      Bromocriptine (H)

                     Chorionic Gonadotropin-HCG (H)

                     Follicle Stimulating Hormone (H)


                                    Cloprostenol (H)

                                    Dinoprost (H)

                                    Fluprostenol (H)

Antiinfective Drugs


                                    Albendazole (O,E)

                                    Clorsulon (O,E)

                                    Dichlorvos (H)

                                    Doramectin (O)

                                    Eprinomectin (O)

                                    Febantel (H)

                                    Fenbendazole (H,E)

                                    Fenthion (O)

                                    Furazolidone (H)

                                    Ivermectin (H,E)

                                    Levamisole (O) (E)

                                    Metronidazole (H,E)

                                    Morantel (O) (E)

                                    Oxfendazole (H)

                                    Oxibendazole (H)

                                    Piperazine (H)

                                    Praziquantal (O) (E)

                                    Pyrantal (H)

                                    Pyrimethamine (H)

                                    Thiabendazole (H) (E)

            Anticoccidial Agents

                                    Amprolium  (O)

                                    Decoquinate (O)




            Amikacin (E)

Ethambutol (E)

            Isoniazid (E)

            Pyrazinamide (E)

            Rifampin (E)


                                    Amikacin (H) (E)

                                    Gentamicin (H) (E)

                                    Neomycin (H)

                                    Spectinomycin (H)

                                    Tobramycin (H)


                                    Cefadroxil (O)

                                    Cefazolin (H)

                                    Cefoperazone (H)

                                    Cefotaxime (H)

                                    Cefoxitin (H)

                                    Ceftiofur (H) (E)

                                    Ceftriaxone (H)

                                    Cephalexin (H)

                                    Cephalothin (H)

                                    Cephapirin (H)


                                    Erythromycins (H) (E)

                                    Tylosin (O) (E)


                                    Amoxicillin (H) (E)

                                    Ampicillin (H) (E)

                                    Cloxacillin (O)

                                    Oxacillin (H)

                                    Penicillin G (H) (E)

                                    Penicillin V (H)

                                    Ticarcillin (H)


                                    Doxycycline (H)

                                    Oxytetracycline (H) (E)

                                    Tetracycline (H)


                                    Tilmicosin (O)


                                    Enrofloxacin (H) (E)

                                    Ciprofloxacin (O)



                       Sulfadimethoxine (H)

                       Sulfadimrthoxine/Ormetoprim (O) (E)

                        Miscellaneous Antibacterials

                                    Chloramphenicol (H)

                                    Clioquinol  (H)

                                    Florfenicol (O)

                                    Imipenem-Cilastatin (O)

                                    Metronidazole (H) (E)

                                    Nitrofurantoin (H)

                                    Novobiocin (O)

                                    Rifampin (H) (E)

                                    Sodium Iodide (H)


            Antifungal Agents

                                    Amphotericin B (H)

                                    Griseofulvin (H)

                                    Itraconazole  (H)

                                    Ketoconazole (H)

            Antiviral Agents

                                    Famciclovir  (E)

Blood Modifying Agents


            Clotting Agents

                        Vitamin K

                                    Phytonadione (H)


                                    Heparin (H)

                                    Warfarin (H)


            Erythropoietic Agents

                                    Ferrous Sulfate (H)

            Misc. Blood Modifying Agents

                                    Pentoxifylline (H) 579


            Fluid & Electrolyte Modifiers

                        Electrolyte Modifiers

                                    Calcium Salts             (H)

                                    Dextran 70 (O)

                                    Magnesium Sulfate Inj. (O)

                                    Mannitol (H)

                                    Potassium  (O)



            Alkylating Agents

                                    Chlorambucil (H)

                         Miscellaneous Agents


                                 Antivenin Polyvalent /
                                     Coral Snake (H)

                                    Atipamezole (O) (E)

                                    Dimercaprol (H)

                                    Edetate Calcium Disodium (H)

                                    Naloxone  (H) (E)

                                    Penicillamine (O)

                                    Phytonadione (H)

                                    Pralidoxime (H)

                                    Sodium Sulfate (O)

                                    Sodium Thiosulfate (H)

                                    Thiamine (H)

                                    Zinc Acetate/Sulfate (O) (E)

                                    Charcoal, activated (H)


            Bone/Joint Agents

                      Hyaluronate (O)

                      Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan (H)


            Dermatologic Agents (Systemic)

                                    Pentoxifylline (H)


Vitamins and Minerals/Nutrients

                                    Ascorbic Acid/Vit. C (H)

                                    Thiamine (H)

                                    Vitamin E/Selenium (H) (E)

                                    Vitamin B Complex

                                    Zinc Acetate/Sulfate (O)


            Systemic Acidifiers

                                    Acetazolamide (O)

                                    Acetic Acid (H)


            Systemic Alkalinizers

                                    Sodium Bicarbonate (H)


                                    Hyaluronidase (E)