PROTOCOLS AND GUIDELINES
(HEALTH, MANAGEMENT, WELFARE)

HEALTH PROTOCOLS

GENERAL
Healthcare Management of Captive Asian Elephants (India)

ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPHIC HERPES VIRUS / EEHV (also see www.eehvinfo.org)
European EEHV Guidelines
Houston Zoo Asian Elephant EEHV Protocol April 2015
Oklahoma City Zoo Asian Elephants EEHV Protocol 2012

United Kingdom EEHV Protocol by Jonathan Cracknell
Asia EEHV Guidelines
Standards of Care for Elephant Calves for EEHV-Preparedness (EEHV Advisory Group)
EEHV Monitoring and Diagnostic Testing of “At Risk” Juvenile African Elephants (EEHV Advisory Group) 
EEHV Research and Tissue Request Protocol June 2015 (EEHV Advisory Group)
Request Form for EEHV Testing with instructions for sample submission 2016
Bibiography of publications about EEHV 

TUBERCULOSIS (TB)
Guidelines for the Control of TB in Elephants 2010
After careful evaluation, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has determined that the U.S. Animal Health Association’s (USAHA) 2010 “Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants” continue to represent the best standards of care for elephants that may be exposed to TB or test positive for the disease, and APHIS is strongly encouraging licensees and registrants who own elephants to voluntarily comply with the Guidelines (October 16, 2015).
Lessons from “Mycobacterium-Related Elephant Necropsy Cases” (Dr. Scott Terrell)
Bibliography of publications about TB in elephants

AZA-SSP ELEPHANT HEALTH PROTOCOLS
Elephant Serum Bank Submission Form 2010
Elephant SSP Routine Health Protocol 2012
Elephant SSP Transport guidelines for elephants 2012
Elephant Tag/SSP Research and Necropsy Protocol 2016 
Quarantine Guidelines for Elephants 2010

REPRODUCTION
Potential Treatments for Reproductive Problems in Elephants (Janine Brown – National Zoo – US)
Veterinary Guidelines for Reproduction-Related Management in Captive Female Elephants (Dr. Willem
Schaftenaar and Dr. Thomas Hildebrandt)
Use of Domperidone to Treat Parturition and Lactation Problems in Elephants (Dr. Janine Brown)

FOOT HEALTH
The Elephant’s Hoof: Macroscopic and Microscopic Morphology (Andreas Benz)

NUTRITION
Elephants: Nutrition and Dietary Husbandry (Nutrition Advisory Group) 1997

POSTMORTEM
Post-mortem Procedures for Wildlife Veterinarians and Field Biologists (African Elephants) (Published jointly by the Office International des Epizooties, Care for the Wild and the Veterinary Specialist Group/Species Survival Commission
Techniques and Procedure for Post-Mortem Of Elephants: A Handbook for Veterinarians, Biologists & Elephant Managers – Cheeran
Elephant Tag/SSP Research and Necropsy Protocol 2016Elephant Postmortem Examination Practical Application and General Principles (Dr. Rita McManamon and Dr. Scott Terrell)

MANAGEMENT

AZA Standards for Elephant Management and Care (AZA 2012) Hold new vsn coming
Best Practices Coalition for Captive Elephant Well-Being 2005
BIAZA Management Guidelines for Elephants 3rd Edition
Elephant Care Manual for Mahouts and Camp Managers (Thailand)
KERALA CAPTIVE ELEPHANTS (Management and Maintenance)
Optimal Conditions for Captive Elephants 2005 (Coalition for Captive Elephant Well-Being)
Practical Elephant Management – A Handbook for Mahouts (India)

WELFARE

Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare PLOS One Collection. (link below)
This collection of articles resulted from a comprehensive study analyzing the daily lives of 255 Asian and African elephants in 68 North American zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). Research focused on factors related to the wellbeing of elephants including: behavior, body condition, foot and joint health, female reproductive function, and walking distance. 
http://collections.plos.org/elephant-welfare Developing Behavioural Indicators, as Part of a Wider Set of Indicators, to Assess the Welfare of Elephants in UK Zoos. May 2015
The Welfare, Housing and Husbandry of Elephants in UK Zoos.  Harris, M., Sherwin, C. and Harris, S. 2008. Elephants in UK Zoos 2010. Zoos Forum review of issues in elephant husbandry in UK zoos in the light of the report by Harris et al (2008).
Elephant Welfare Group (established to drive forward a series of improvements in the welfare and care of       elephants in UK zoological collections)
AVMA Literature Review on the Welfare Implications of Elephant Training (April 14, 2008)