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APHIS Finalizes Voluntary Elephant TB Policy - Oct. 16, 2015
fter careful evaluation, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has determined that the U.S. Animal Health Association’s (USAHA) 2010 “Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants” continue to represent the best standards of care for elephants that may be exposed to TB or test positive for the disease, and APHIS is strongly encouraging licensees and registrants who own elephants to voluntarily comply with the Guidelines.
(USAHA) 2010 “Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants”

Mycobacterial Infections in Elephants (Book Chapter)
Susan Mikota and authors collaborated to write a chapter on elephant tuberculosis for a new mycobacteriology text book

Susan K. Mikota,1* Konstantin P. Lyashchenko,2, Linda Lowenstine,3 Dalen Agnew4 and Joel N. Maslow5 2015
Mycobacterial Infections in Elephants. In: Tuberculosis, leprosy and mycobacterial diseases of man and animals: the many hosts of mycobacteria. CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International), Oxfordshire, UK

Available at http://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/9781780643960

Comprehensive reference list on TB in elephants
(updated to Nov. 2015)

Publications by ECI staff
comprehensive listing at link above

Help for Vietnam’s Elephants
Dr. Susan Mikota (ECI) and elephant behaviorist Erin Ivory (North Carolina Zoo)
are assisting the Dak Lak Elephant Conservation Center

Myanmar Timber Elephant Project at the University of Sheffield
Multi-disciplinary research group based at the University of Sheffield studying
a large and unique semi-captive population of timber elephants in Myanmar.

Please Support Nepal Earthquake Relief
Elephant Care International has been working in Nepal
for the past ten years. 

(links takes you to outside agencies that are providing support)

An award winning film about elephants of Myanmar (Burma)!

Of Oozies and Elephants

Since 2012 Dr. Susan Mikota of ECI has participated in veterinary capacity building in conjunction with the Myanmar Timber Elephant Group, a multi-disciplinary research group based at the University of Sheffield studying a large and unique semi-captive population of timber elephants in Myanmar (Burma).

In 2012 and 2013, the award winning team of Suzanne & Simon Campbell-Jones filmed the team’s activities and the working timber elephants.  Filmed entirely in Myanmar/Burma, Of Oozies and Elephants is the resulting 89 minute documentary and has been featured in several film festivals and at the Smithsonian Institute. The film portrays selective timber harvesting by working elephants, the importance to the local economy, and why elephants provide an environmentally beneficial alternative to expensive and habitat destructive mechanized extraction of timber.

‘Of Oozies and Elephants’ won the Audience Award at the Bath Film Festival 2013

Website http://ooziesandelephants.co.uk/

Trailer   https://vimeo.com/77426318

The full-length documentary is available at Amazon.com.



Image Galleries migrating to Pinterest!

During the next three months, our image galleries will be moving to Pinterest to enable a larger audience to share our love and care for elephants. Please check in often at the Pinterest sight for more images.


The Nepal Elephant Tuberculosis Control and Management Action Plan

The Nepal Elephant Tuberculosis Control and Management Action Plan was approved by the Ministry of Forestry of Nepal as part of Nepal’s Elephant Action Plan. The Plan includes a history of TB in elephants in Nepal and guidelines for surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment. The goals of the Plan are to enhance the health of government patrol elephants (critical to conservation) and to mitigate TB transmission to the wild by controlling TB at the captive-wild interface.  The Plan is now available globally as a resource to assist other Asian elephant range countries that may be facing problems with TB in captive elephants.  Elephant Care International has been assisting with elephant TB work in Nepal since 2006 with funding from USFWS Asian Elephant Conservation Fund grants (3), the Alexander Abraham Foundation, the American Veterinary Medical Foundation, the Mazuri Fund, the Walter J. Ernst Memorial Fund, the Humane Society of the United States, the Columbus zoo, the Oklahoma City Zoo, Twycross Zoo, Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund, AAZK (American Association of Zookeepers, Buttonwood Park Zoo New Bedford, MA), Tulsa Zoo, and other zoos and private donors.

This document is available as a PDF. Caution: image intensive, 41 pages long, and 10 MB in size.
Click here to access the document.

New Parasite Images  (this link takes you to the gallery)
Courtesy of and Copyright by Dr. Partha S. Banerjee
Amiroides sp.
Cobboldia elephantis maggots
Equinerbia sp
Murshidia sp

CUPA and ANCF Offer Free Downloads of Elephant Welfare Publications
CUPA (Compassion Unlimited Plus Action) and ANCF (Asian Nature Conservation Foundation) are offering free downloads of a series of elephant welfare publications, includingWelfare and Management of Elephants in Captivity
Captive Elephants in Circuses
Wandering Elephants of Punjab
Captive Elephants of Karnataka
Database for captive Elephants and their Mahouts in Karnataka
Model for Elephant keeping and Keeper Welfare
Spatial distribution of Captive Elephant locations in southern India
Captive Elephants in Zoos
Captive Elephants of Tamil Nadu
Captive Elephants of Gujarat

Visit their website at



Sponsoring Compounding Pharmacy

Grove Compounding Pharmacy

3050 S. National
Springfield, MO 65804
Contact: Dan Loper, R.Ph, DVM
Tel: 417-881-8822
Fax: 417-888-0667
Email: dloper@grovepharmacy.com

Website: www.GrovePharmacy.com

Elephant Tuberculosis References (by date)

An Open Letter on Elephant Tuberculosis (TB) Issues
To veterinarians, elephant managers, zoo directors,
elephant range country professionals

Current and Future Technologies to Manage TB in Elephants
-a PDF presentation by S. Mikota as invited speaker at University of Georgia,
College of Veterinary Medicine, January 2011


ECI establishes an annual $1,000 grant for post-graduate elephant research to the
Madras Veterinary School, Department of Wildlife Science, Chennai, India
The first award has been made to Dr. B. Nishanth for
“Assessment of Fecal Cortisol in Captive and Free-ranging Elephants of Tamilnadu State.” 
His Co-Investigators or Collaborators include Dr.S.R.Srinivasan, Ph.D,
Dr.M.G.Jayathangaraj, Ph.D, and Dr.R.Sridhar, Ph.D. 

ECI awarded $43,123 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Asian Elephant Conservation Fund grant
for Implementation of the Nepal Elephant TB Control Plan
as a Model for Asian Elephant Range Countries

Nepal Project Update
Details here

ECI donates Chembio Elephant TB STAT-PAKs® to Sri Lankan Researcher
ECI donated 100 ElephantTB STAT-PAK® Assays to a student researcher (Sara Baez Seara) for part of a Zoological Society of London Master's program, where she is working in conjunction with
Dr. Vijitha Perera
with the Sri Lankan Department of Wildlife Conservation

ECI donates Chembio Elephant TB STAT-PAKs® to Tanzanian Researcher
ECI donated 20 ElephantTB STAT-PAK® Assays to the
Tanzanian national parks
as part of a pilot study
to screen wild African elephants for TB

New SSP Protocols

- ECI and Michigan State University awarded a $4,750 Mazuri Fund Grant
The study will examine "Serum vitamin D and Calcium Metabolism in Asian elephants from Nepal with and without Tuberculosis"

House/ECI office building has begun
 - a personal note
Hank Hammatt and Dr. Susan Mikota have begun construction of their new home/office, finally replacing the small cottage in Waveland, MS destroyed by Hurricane Katrina (http://www.elephantcare.org/katrina.htm).  Our new house will be a super-insulated passive solar design with high thermal mass, direct gain, a solar sun room for heat transfer to the house, and with light straw clay interior walls.  Hank has been accumulating materials for three years, with most purchases made from Habitat for Humanity Re-Stores.  It is rewarding to think that the money we have spent at Habitat for construction materials (doors, windows, kitchen cabinets, furniture, and even exercise equipment), will pay for much of a new Habitat House.  So, in a way, we are almost building two houses!  And saving money....  Hank is doing most of the actual construction, assisted at times by his brother Bruce and the occasional paid worker.

Dr. Susan Mikota appointed Adjunct Assistant Professor at Michigan State University
Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation

Rabies Camp in Nepal
After Dr. Mikota had an exposure to a rabid dog, our team in Nepal organized a free rabies clinic for local people to have their cats and dogs vaccinated for rabies.  Major assistance was provided by IAAS and the Kathmandu Animal Treatment Center. More than 200 cats and dogs were vaccinated in two days.

SPCAI donates drugs for Nepal elephants, street dogs, and zoo animals.

The drugs were distributed to the following three organizations:

1.      The National Trust for Nature Conservation, Biodiversity Conservation Center (NTNC/BCC; www.ntnc.org.np). This is situated at Chitwan district of Southern Nepal. The Nepal Elephant HealthCare and Tuberculosis Surveillance Program Office is situated at BCC. NTNC will share these drugs with the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation to use with the captive elephants that the Department maintains for conservation work such as patrolling the national parks, anti-poaching, and rhino census work. Following quantities of drugs were received at NTNC/BCC:

a.     Ciprofloxacin: 1,43,000tablets

b.      Ampicillin: 93,000 tablets

c.      Albendazole: 47,000 tablets

1.      Central Zoo (managed by NTNC; http://www.ntnc.org.np/project/central-zoo): This site is located in Kathmandu. The Zoo is a home to large numbers of fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals. Following quantities of drugs were distributed to the Central Zoo:

a.     Ciprofloxacin: 2000 tablets

b.      Ampicillin: 2000 tablets

c.      Albendazole: 2000 tablets

2.      Kathmandu Animal Treatment Center (KAT; http://www.katcentre.org.np/). This is situated in the northern part of Kathmandu valley and is working on the sterilization and humane management of the street dogs. Following quantities of the drugs were distributed in KAT Center:

a.      Ciprofloxacin:5000 tablets

b.      Ampicillin: 5000 tablets

c.      Albendazole: 1000 tablets

     USAHA Draft Guidelines for the Control of TB in Elephants
March 08 by United States Animal Health Association

September 2009

ECI receives a $4,000 donation from Oklahoma City Zoo for our Elephant TB Initiative
Thank you Oklahoma City Zoo!

ECI awarded $6,000 emergency grant from Columbus Zoo
to complete drug purchases for three elephants under treatment for TB in Nepal - part of our Nepal Elephant Healthcare and Tuberculosis Surveillance Program - Thank you Columbus Zoo!

An Elephant In The Room: The Science and Well-Being of Elephants in Captivity...
(includes a chapter by Dr. Susan Mikota)

The book An Elephant In The Room: The Science and Well-Being of Elephants in Captivity,
edited by Debra Forthman, Lisa Kane, and Paul Waldau is now available for purchase so long as supplies last. 

A digital version of individual chapters is at http://home.elephantsincaptivity.org/tabe

The book itself may be purchased here: http://www.elephants.com/estore/product_view.php?item=212&cat=3^9&desc=Books

This book was published by Tufts University and is authored by numerous elephant experts from around the world. Just a few are: Cynthia Moss and Phyllis Lee, Joyce Poole and Petter Granli, Christy Williams, our Dr. Susan Mikota, and Daphne Sheldrick. It presents the biological, ecological, and social dimensions of elephant behavior in the wild as the basis for any sound understanding of what elephants want and need.

August 2009

ECI awarded $40,618 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Asian Elephant Conservation Fund grant
for our Nepal Elephant Healthcare and Tuberculosis Surveillance Program

September 2008

The ECI website is now on a new, faster server with hugely expanded capabilities. 
We will be expanding the content ...Check back often!

Let Them Be Elephants (PDF of a PowerPoint Presentation)
Hilda Tresz and Heather Wright

(Details new husbandry and training methods for “problem” elephants at Phoenix Zoo)

For the Love of Elephants: Mahoutship and Elephant Conservation in Thailand
Thesis by Jean VortKamp

Giants on Our Hands. Proceedings of the international workshop on the domesticated Asian elephant
Bangkok, Thailand 2001
External link: FAO - PDF version available at this link - link opens in smaller document for faster loading

Review of Options for Managing the Impacts of Locally Overabundant African Elephants
External link:
From the African Elephant Specialist Group - 2007 task force output, available at their site as a PDF

earlier in 2008

Our first Spanish document
La uña del elefante

Elephant TB Scientific Advisory Board established

Parasitology Image Gallery

     USAHA Draft Guidelines for the Control of TB in Elephants March 08 by United States
Animal Health Association

Chembio test to detect TB in elephants licensed by USDA

Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV) Fact Sheet

Dec 2007

Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV) Fact Sheet 2007

Our first Spanish document
La uña del elefante: Morfología macroscópica y
microscópica de situaciones definidas
consideradas como cambios patológicos
Tesis de Doctorado de
Andreas Benz

 Wish List for Nepal's Elephants

Nov. 2007

For the Elephants A fresh approach

Elephant Care International and
Wildlife Information Network
Collaborate to Distribute Elephant Healthcare Information in Asia
Read More

Major update of our Elephant Bibliographic Database:
Now 3406 references!

October 2007

Tuberculosis in Elephants - Frequently Asked Questions

Comprehensive reference list on TB in elephants

ECI Elephant TB Initiative
 a more extensive downloadable PDF file

July 2007

Breaking news...
TB in elephants of Nepal -
News Release

June 2007

ECI Presentations
(Learn more about TB and what
we are doing for elephants)

aution large files, may load slowly on some connections

TB: Implications for Elephant Management in Asia
Presented at the 2006 meeting
of the American Association
of Zoo Veterinarians

Elephant Care International:
TB Initiative

Presented at the 2007 meeting of Zoos and Aquariums Committed to Conservation

October 2006

Elephant Care International - What We Do:
a PDF slide show. Caution 1.4 MB file, may load slowly on some connections

Think for a minute
A brief presentation on
What you can do to save elephants!

September 2006

     Nepal TB Research update

August 2006
    Buddhism & Elephants...


     Alternative to Culling - new brochure

Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of Elephants
By: Murray E. Fowler, Susan K. Mikota

Now available
Full Brochure here.


Risk & Ethics in International Conservation Projects

A presentation delivered at the
Zoos & Aquariums:
Committing to Conservation Conference
January 26th-30th, 2005

Includes links to Internet resources on risk assessment and ethics.

February  2006

The Sitemap has been improved + more changes coming soon _________________________________________________

See Medication Techniques for an updated list of compounding Pharmacies.

See Protocols, Manuals, Standards for several updates

Elephant Care International
Diseases of Elephants - Fact Sheets

Encephalomyocarditis (EMC, EMCV)
Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV)
Signs of Health and Disease


New links (external sites)

Elephant Listening Project
at Cornell’s Bioacoustics Research Program - FAQ

Engender Health course designed to strengthen
infection prevention practices in low-resource settings.

Iowa State offers fact sheets and powerpoint lectures
on 116 reportable and zoonotic diseases

Wildlife Information Network
(WIN) is a veterinary science-based Charity provides information on health and management of free-ranging and captive animals and emerging infectious diseases.

"Studying elephants” handbook The online edition of Studying Elephants
is in PDF format, digitized and made available on the web with permission
from the
African Wildlife Foundation - offered by the AfESG

Veterinary Care of African Elephants
A downloadable 59 page manual by J. G du Toit

Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals
The purpose is to contribute to the international harmonisation of
methods for the surveillance and control of important animal diseases.

World Wide Wounds is an Internet-only electronic woundcare journal

The Charles Louis Davis, D.V.M. Foundation is the largest organization in the world ... in the formal or informal, study, practice or teaching of ... Veterinary, Wildlife and Zoological Pathology ... A wealth of free pathology information ...

Global Health Network University site features over 2000 lectures on human and veterinary topics including epidemiology, diseases, public health, veterinary preventive medicine, and veterinary virology

Bacteriology resources (2)

Smithsonian National Zoo Asian Elephant Interactive GIS Atlas
depicts the remaining habitat of Asian elephants, and allows you to zoom in on these regions. Also, if you choose the tab Identify, and click on an area, a box appears and tells you the region, size of region (in hectares), and country.


Animal Movements And Disease Risk: A Workbook -external link to CBSG

The elephant’s hoof:
Macroscopic and microscopic morphology of defined locations
under consideration of pathological changes

By Dr. med.vet. Andreas Benz of
Veterinär-Anatomisches Institut der Vetsuisse-Fakultät Universität Zürich

(Caution: 4.4 MB PDF file - PDF Hints)

December 2005
 The Blue Elephant

A brief personal story from the co-founders...

August 2005
Hurricane Katrina destroys the home/office of

Elephant Care International Co-founders


July 2005
 Summary - Elephant Tuberculosis Research Workshop May 2005


June 2005

Guidelines For Comprehensive
Elephant Health Monitoring Program
May 2005


February 2005
Smithsonian Zoo seeks elephant keepers


Risk Assessment and Ethics in
International Conservation Projects

Hank Hammatt
Susan Mikota DVM
Elephant Care International

A presentation delivered at the
Zoos & Aquariums:
Committing to Conservation Conference
January 26th-30th, 2005

Includes links to resources on risk and ethics
for international conservation projects

Yudha contacts us! Jan 25, 05
Update on Tsunami impact in Aceh
January 2005

Tsunami Information

August 2004
ummary of Updates

The Bulletin Board has additional information on the following:
Elephant Herpesvirus Testing Now Available (USA)
Elephant SSP Pathologist Update (USA)
West Nile Virus Update in Elephants
Compounding Pharmacies

The IUCN/SSC AfESG Guidelines for the in situ Translocation of African
Elephants for Conservation Purposes now available

see the Bulletin Board for additional information on the above notices)

Updated Versions
Instructions for Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus
(EEHV) Sample Submission

Guidelines For Comprehensive Elephant
Health Monitoring Program July 2003


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June 2004
ummary of Updates

The International Species Information System (ISIS)
has generously allowed us to post their
elephant data for your convenience.

Weights & Physiological Reference Ranges

(International Species Information System - ISIS)

Updated Versions

Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants 2003
(National Tuberculosis Working Group for
Zoo and Wildlife Species - U.S.)

Elephant Research And Tissue Request Protocol 2003
(AZA and Elephant Research Foundation)

The Elephant Database has been updated and
now contains over 2700 references!

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March 30, 2003
of Updates

This website now contains more than 3,500 files.  We will continue to "grow" the site to provide you with the most comprehensive elephant information possible.

Susan and I resumed our elephant project work in Sumatra in September 2002.  Our Internet connections there are very slow and erratic, so we are taking advantage of a visa-related visit to Singapore to make major updates to this website.  Links to more than 150 new pages are listed below. 


Project Newsletters from Sumatra
(previously distributed by e-mail)
April 2001
June 2001
December 2001
November 2002
March 2003

Protocol Additions and Updates 
   (Check Protocols, Manuals, and Proceedings for links & details)
.  Post-mortem Procedures for Wildlife Veterinarians and Field Biologists
       (African Elephant)

   Guidelines For Comprehensive Elephant Health Monitoring Program 2003
   Elephant Serum Bank Submission Form
   Elephant Necropsy Protocol 2003
   Quarantine Guidelines For Elephants 2003
   Transport Guidelines For Elephants 2002
   Elephant Vital Signs and Physiological Parameters

   Recommended Elephant Preshipment Guidelines 2003
   Elephant Research And Tissue Request Protocol 2003
   Guidelines For The Control Of Tuberculosis In Elephants 2003
   Recommendations for EEHV (Herpes Virus) Testing and Transport of
        Elephants 2002

   More than 450 new listings, now 2,458 references!
   Recommendations for downloading  
   New category added: Laws, Legislation, and Welfare

Image Gallery - new pages
Images by Kim Luikart DVM -
      Anatomy of the foot
      Anatomical cross-sections of the foot
      Vascular anatomy of lower leg and foot

    Thank you Kim for sharing!
  That is the purpose of this website - to facilitate the sharing of elephant data among professionals. If you have images to share, please contact us to make arrangements for posting.
   Images by Dr. Jacob V. Cheeran
     Pit System of Elephant Capture (formerly used in southern India)
Thank You Dr. Jacob. V. Cheeran for sharing these images.
   Elephants in History
      Depictions at Angkor Wat, Cambodia - coming in a few days!
      Depictions at Wat Phra Tat , Lampang, Thailand - coming in a few days!
Landscapes of Indonesia
Bukittinggi (our brief break from elephants)
Krista Muller, Buttonwood Park Zoo AAZK Chapter
   Toronto Zoo
   Niabi Zoo, a very special thanks!!  Read about their story here.
   Roberto Aguilar, Audubon Park Zoo,
   and many more...see Acknowledgments

Formulary Developments
We now expect that the first draft of the Elephant formulary will be
      published on-line by August, 2003

Scientific Developments
AfESG Statement on the Taxonomy of Extant Loxodonta

Bulletin Board
Eighth Annual Elephant Research and Conservation Symposium
       Human-Elephant Relationships And Conflicts will be the theme for the
       meeting scheduled for
September 18-20, 2003 in Sri Lanka.)
African Elephant Specialist Group Small Grants Fund

New Links:
     www.zooreach.org (Sally Walker in India)
     The Indonesian Nature Conservation Database
     The Merck Veterinary Manual online
     USDA TB (Tuberculosis) guidelines 2003
           (see also in our Protocols Page)

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Website creation, design, and copyright  © 2002-2015 by Hank Hammatt.   Images copyright © 2002-2015 by Hank Hammatt  (except as noted)
here to get information on image use.  All other rights reserved.