Elephant Formulary

© 2003-17 Susan K. Mikota DVM and Donald C. Plumb, Pharm.D. Published by
Elephant Care International

Disclaimer: the information on this page is used entirely at the reader's discretion, and is made available on the express condition that no liability, expressed or implied, is accepted by the authors or publisher for the accuracy, content, or use thereof.



Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.


Elephants: The references listed below include information about diprenorphine.  Refer to the etorphine and carfentanil monographs for abstracts and dose information.


Elephant References:

a) du Toit,J.G., 2001. Veterinary Care of African Elephants. Novartis, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, 1-59 pp.  www.wildlifedecisionsupport.com

b) Raath,J.P., 1999. Relocation of African elephants. In: Fowler,M.E. and Miller,R.E. (Editors), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA pp. 525-533

c) Stegmann,G.F. 1999. Etorphine-halothane anaesthesia in two five-year-old African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association

d) Elkan,P.W., Planton,H.P., Powell,J.A., Haigh,J.A., and Karesh,W.B. 1998. Chemical immobilization of African elephant in lowland forest, southwestern Cameroon. Pachyderm 25:(Jan-July):32-37

e) Osofsky,S.A. 1997. A practical anesthesia monitoring protocol for free-ranging adult African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33:(1):72-77

f) Singh,L.A.K., Nayak,B.N., and Acharjya,S.K. 1996. Chemical capture of a problem-elephant in Bolangir, Orissa. Indian Forester. Special issue: wildlife management. 122:(10):955-960

g) Still,J., Raath,J.P., and Matzner,L. 1996. Respiratory and circulatory parameters of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) anesthetized with etorphine and azaperone. Journal of the South African Veterinary Medical Association 67:(3):123-127

h) Fowler,M.E., 1995. Elephants. In: Restraint and handling of wild and domestic animals. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA pp. 265-269

i) Osofsky,S.A.  1995. Pulse oximetry monitoring of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) immobilized with an etorphine/hyaluronidase combination antagonized with diprenorphine. Joint Conference AAZV/WDA/AAWV. Pages: 237-277

j) Schumacher,J., Heard,D.J., Caligiuri,R., Norton,T., and Jacobson,E.R. 1995. Comparative effects of etorphine and carfentanil on cardiopulmonary parameters in juvenile African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 26:(4):503-507

k) Hattingh,J., Knox,C.M., and Raath,J.P. 1994. Arterial blood pressure of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) under etorphine anaesthesia and after remobilisation with diprenorphine. Veterinary Record 135:(19):458-459

l) Kock,R.A., Morkel,P., and Kock,M.D., 1993. Current immobilization procedures used in elephants. In: Fowler,M.E. (Editor), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy 3. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA, USA pp. 436-441

m) Raath,J.P., 1993. Chemical capture of the African elephant. In: The Capture and care manual : capture, care, accommodation and transportation of wild African animals. Pretoria : Wildlife Decision Support Services : South African Veterinary  Foundation, Pretoria pp. 484-511

n) Lance,W.R. 1991. New pharmaceutical tools for the 1990’s. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 354-359

o) Jacobson,E.R., Kollias,G.V., Heard,D.J., and Caligiuri,R. 1988. Immobilization of African elephants with carfentanil and antagonism with nalmefene and diprenorphine. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 19:1-7

p) Lateur,N. and Stolk,P.  1986. Repeated general anesthesia in a male Indian elephant. Proc.Am.Assoc.Zoo Vet. Pages: 128-131

q) Kock,N., Kock,M., Arif,A., and Wahid,M.N.S.A.  1984. Immobilization techniques and complications associated with a bull Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) during musth. Proc.Am.Assoc.Zoo Vet. Pages: 68-74

r) Ebedes,H. 1975. The immobilization of adult male and female elephant, Loxodonta africana, with etorphine and observation on the action of diprenorphine. Madogua 9:19-24

s) Alford,B.T., Burkhart,R.L., and Johnson,W.P. 1974. Etorphine and diprenorphine as immobilizing and reversing agents in captive and free-ranging mammals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 164:(7):702-705