Elephant Formulary

© 2003-17 Susan K. Mikota DVM and Donald C. Plumb, Pharm.D. Published by
Elephant Care International

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Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.

Technical information to be added



a) 6-7 mg/kg po (Carreno et.al., 2001).


b) 2.5 – 4.0 mg/kg orally as a single dose (Chandrasekharan, 2002), (Chandrasekharan, et.al.,1995), (Chandrasekharan, 1992).


c) 3-4 mg/kg orally for strongylosis (Chandrasekharan et.al., 1982).


Elephant References:

         a) Carreno,R.A., Neimanis,A.S., Lindsjo,J., Thongnoppakun,P., Barta,J.R., and Peregrine,A.S. 2001. Parasites found in faeces of Indian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand following treatment with mebendazole, with observations on Pfenderius papillatus (Cobbold, 1882) Stiles and Goldberger, 1910 by scanning electron microscopy. Helminthologia 38:(2):75-79  Abstract: Three Indian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand were treated with mebendazole at a dose of 6-7 mg/kg body weight. Four days following treatment, faecal examinations were negative for nematode eggs in all elephants and negative for fluke eggs in two of the animals. However, adult parasites were recovered from faeces from each of the animals 36-72 hours after deworming. These included Murshidia falcifera, M. neveulemairei, a Quilonia species, and the amphistome Pfenderius papillatus, 1910. The finding of P. papillatus constitutes the first record of this species in Thailand. Specimens of P. papillatus were examined by scanning electron microscopy. In contrast to earlier descriptions of this species, no prominent papillae were found at the anterior end. Structures on the acetabulum that had previously been described as papillae were actually elevated pores that were spread over the acetabulum. These pores differ from all previous descriptions of P. papillatus and indicate a highly modified acetabulum in P. papillatus relative to other Pfenderius species.

         b) Chandrasekharan,K. 2002. Specific diseases of Asian elephants. Journal of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala 7:(3):31-34

         b) Chandrasekharan,K., Radhakrishnan,K., Cheeran,J.V., Nair,K.N.M., and Prabhakaran,T., 1995. Review of the Incidence, Etiology and Control of Common Diseases of Asian Elephants with Special Reference to Kerala. In: Daniel,J.C. (Editor), A Week with Elephants; Proceedings of the International Seminar on Asian Elephants. Bombay Natural History Society; Oxford University Press, Bombay, India pp. 439-449

         b) Chandrasekharan,K., 1992. Prevalence of infectious diseases in elephants in Kerala and their treatment. In: Silas,E.G., Nair,M.K., and Nirmalan,G. (Editors), The Asian Elephant: Ecology, Biology, Diseases, Conservation and Management (Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Asian Elephant held at the Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India, January 1989). Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, India pp. 148-155

         c) Chandrasekharan,K., Cheeran,J.V., Nair,K.N.M., Ramanujam,K.N., and Radhakrishnan,K. 1982. Comparative efficacy of 6 anti-helminthics against strongylosis in elephants. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science 13:15-20  Summary: Anthelmintic efficacy of six drugs was compared under field conditions against strongylosis in elephants. Mebendazole at 3 and 4 mg/kg, Levamisole 3 mg/kg and Morantel tartrate 5 mg/kg were proved to be 100% effective.  Mebendazole at 2 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, Thiabendazole at 32 mg/kg. Bephenium hydroxynaphthoate at 25 mg/kg and Disophenol at 3 mg/kg were found to be effective only in 79.1 to 92.2 %, 88.1 to 100%, 84.6 to 95.3 %, 85.9 to 100% and 68.3 to 84 % cases respectively.